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引用 中考英语语法难点大全  

2010-10-21 15:34:42|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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引用

小小中考英语语法难点大全

(一) 形容词和副词
  I. 要点
  A. 形容词
  1、 形容词的用法
  形容词是用来修饰、描绘名词的,通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。如:
  He is honest and hardworking.
  I found the book interesting.
  某些形容词与定冠词连用表示一类人作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如:
  The rich and the poor live in different parts of the city.
  The English like to be with their families.
  多个形容词作定语修饰名词的顺序:
  冠词+序数词+基数词+性质状态(描述性)+形状大小+新旧老少+颜色+国籍+材料+名词。如: the second five interesting big new red Chinese wall papers.
  2、 形容词比较等级的形式
  (1) 规则形式
  一般说来,单音节词及少数双音节词在后加-er; --est 来构成比较级和最高级;其他双音节词及多音节词在前加more, most.如:
  great-greater-greatest
  busy-busier-busiest
  important-more important-(the)most important
  (2) 不规则形式
  good (well)-better-best
  bad (ill)-worse-worst
  many (much)-more-most
  little-less-least
  (3) 形容词比较等级的用法
  ①表示两者的比较,用形容词的比较级+than. 如:
  He is cleverer than the other boys.
  This one is more beautiful than that one.
  ②表示两者以上的比较,用"the +形容词最高级(+名词)+of(in) …"如:
  He is the cleverest boy in his class.
  ③表示两者是同等程度,用"as +形容词原级+as". 如:
  He is as tall as I.
  I have as many books as you.
  ④ 越… 越… 
  例如:The more I learn, the happier I am.
  ⑤ You can never be too careful. 越小心越好
  又如:You can never praise the teacher too highly. 
  你怎么赞扬这个老师也不过分。
  ⑥ I have never spent a more worrying day.
  那一天是最令我担心的一天。
  I have never had a better dinner.
  这是我吃过的最好的一顿饭。
  ⑦ My English is no better than yours.
  我的英语和你的英语都不怎么样。  B.副词
  1、 副词的种类
  (1) 时间副词 如:ago, before, already, just, now, early, late, finally, tomorrow等
  (2) 地点副词 如:here, there, near, around, in, out, up, down, back, away, outside等。
  (3) 方式副词 如:carefully, angrily, badly, calmly, loudly, quickly, politely, nervously等。
  (4) 程度副词 如:almost, nearly, much, greatly, a bit, a little, hardly, so, very等。
  2、 副词比较等级的用法
  其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高级前可省略定冠词。如:
  Of all the boys he sings (the) most beautifully.
  We must work harder.
  3、 某些副词在用法上的区别
  (1) already, yet, still
  already表示某事物已经发生,主要用于肯定句;yet表示期待某事发生,主要用于否定句和疑问句;still表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,有时也可用于否定句。如:
  We’ve already watched that film.
  I haven’t finished my homework yet.
  He still works until late every night.
  (2) too, as well, also, either
  too, as well和 also用于肯定句和疑问句,too和as well多用于口语,一般放在句末,而also多用于书面语,一般放在句中与动词连用。either用于否定句和否定的疑问句,往往放在句末。如:He went there too.
  He didn’t go there either.
  I like you as well.
  I also went there.
  (3) hard, hardly
  hardly意为"几乎"与hard在词义上完全不同。如:
  I work hard every day.
  I can hardly remember that.
  (4) late, lately
  lately意为"最近、近来",late意为"晚、迟"。如:
  He never comes late.
  Have you been to the museum lately?
  例1 Tom’s father thinks he is already ____ 
  A high enough  B tall enough
  C enough high  C enough tall
  解析:该题正确答案是B。修饰人高用tall, 而建筑物的高用high,并且enough修饰形容词要放在形容词后面。因此该题选B。
  例2 ____ the worse I seem to be.
  A When I take more medicine
  B The more medicine I take
  C Taking more of the medicine
  D More medicine taken
  解析:该题正确答案为B。"the+形容词比较级+… , the +形容词比较级+…"意为越…,越…。该句意为:吃的药越多,我的病越是加重。 
  例3"I haven’t been to London yet".
  "I haven’t been there ____".
  A too  B also  C either  D neither
  解析:该题正确答案为C。A和B都用于肯定句中。D-neither本身意为否定"两者都不",而C-either则用于否定句中,意为"也"。
  例4 Mr Smith was ____ moved at the news.
  A deep  B deeply  C very deep  D quite deeply
  解析:该题正确答案为B。A. deep用于副词时,修饰具体的深,如dig deep,而B-deeply则修饰表示感情色彩的词,如该题为deeply moved.另如deeply regret等。而D-quite和deeply均为副词,不能互相修饰。
中考英语语法难点大全之二:介词

(二) 介词
  I. 要点
  1、介词和种类
  (1) 简单介词,常用的有at, in, on, about, across, before, beside, for , to, without等。
  (2) 复合介词,如by means of, along with, because of, in front of, instead of等。
  2、介词和其他词类的习惯搭配关系
  (1) 和动词的搭配,如agree with, ask for, belong to, break away from, care about等。
  (2) 和形容词的搭配,如afraid of, angry with, different from, good at
  (3) 和名词的搭配,如answer to , key to, reason for, cause of, visit to等.
  3、介词短语可以有自己的修饰语,这种修饰语通常有right, just, badly, all, well, directly, completely等少数几个副词。如:
  He came right after dinner.
  He lives directly opposite the school.
  4、 某些介词的意义与用法举例
  (1) at, on, in(表时间)
  表示时间点用at,如at four o’clock, at midnight等;表示不确定的时间或短期假日也用at,如at that time, at Christmas等。
  指某天用on, 如on Monday, on the end of November, 指某天的朝夕用on,如on Friday morning, on the afternoon of September lst等。
  指长于或短于一天的时段用in,如in the afternoon, in February, in Summer, in 1999等。
  (2) between, among(表位置)
  between仅用于二者之间,但说三者或三者以上中的每两个之间的相互关系时,也用between, 如
  I’m sitting between Tom and Alice.
  The village lies between three hills.
  among用于三者或三者以上之间。如:
  He is the best among the students.
  (3) beside, besides
  beside意为"在…旁边",而besides意为"除…之外"。如:
  He sat beside me.
  What do you want besides this?
  (4)in the tree, on the tree
  in the tree 指动物或人在树上,而on the tree 指果实、树叶长在树上
  (5)on the way, in the way, by the way, in this way
  on the way 指在路上 in the way 指挡道
  by the way 指顺便问一句 in this way 用这样的方法
  (6)in the corner, at the corner
  in the corner 指在拐角内 at the corner 指在拐角外
  (7)in the morning, on the morning
  in the morning 是一般说法 on the morning 特指某一天的早晨
  (8)by bus, on the bus
  by bus 是一般说法 on the bus 特指乘某一辆车  II. 例题
  例1 Do you know any other foreign language____ English?
  A except B but C beside D besides
  解析:A、B两项except等于but,意为"除了…",C-beside意为"在…旁边",不符合题意。而D-besides,   意为"除了…之外,还有"。所以该题正确答案为D。该题意为:除了英语外,你还知道别的语言吗?
  例2 He suddenly returned ____ a rainy night.
  A on B at C in D during
  解析:我们均知道,at night这一短语,但如果night前有修饰词,表具体的夜晚,则要用介词on来修饰,故该题正确答案为A。
  例3 I’m looking forward ____your letter.
  A to B in C at D on
  解析:该题正确答案为A。look forward to 为固定搭配,意为"期望、盼望"。 

 

中考英语语法难点大全之三:连词

(三) 连词
  I. 要点
  1、 连词的种类
  (1) 并列连词用来连接并列关系的词、短语或分句,如and, for, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor等。
  (2) 从属连词用来引导从句,如that, if, whether, when, after, as soon as等。
  除了从属连词(引导状语从句)外,还有其它可以用来引导从句的词类。它们是连接代词和连接副词(引导名词性从句),关系代词和关系副词(引导定语从句)。 
  2、 常用连词举例
  (1)and 和,并且 
  They drank and sang all night.
  (2) both…and 和, 既…也…
  Both my parents and I went there.
  (3) but 但是,而
  I’m sad, but he is happy.
  (4) either…or 或…或…, 要么…要么…
  Either you’re wrong, or I am.
  (5) for因为
  I asked him to stay, for I had something to tell him.
  (6) however 然而,可是
  Af first, he didn’t want to go there. Later, however, he decided to go.
  (7) neither…nor 既不…也不
  Neither my parents nor my aunt agrees with you.
  (8) not only…but(also) 不但…而且…
  He not only sings well, but also dances well.
  (9) or 或者,否则
  Hurry up, or you’ll be late.
  Are you a worker or a doctor?
  (10) so 因此,所以
  It’s getting late, so I must go.
  (11) although 虽然
  Although it was late, they went on working.
  (12) as soon as 一 …就
  I’ll tell him as soon as I see him.
  (13) because 因为
  He didn’t go to school, because he was ill.
  (14)unless 除非,如果不
  I won’t go unless it is fine tomorrow.
  (15)until 直到…
  He didn’t leave until eleven. (瞬间动词用于not… until 结构) 
  He stayed there until eleven.
  (16)while 当…时候,而 (表示对比)
  While I stayed there, I met a friend of mine. (while后不可用瞬间动词)
  My pen is red while his is blue. 
  (17)for 因为
  He was ill, for he didn’t come. (结论是推断出来的)
  (18)since自从…
  I have lived here since my uncle left.
  (19)hardly… when 一… 就
  I had hardly got to the station when the train left.
  (20)as far as 就… 来说
  As far as I know, that country is very small.
  You may walk as far as the lake. (一直走到湖那里)

II. 例题
  例1 John plays football ____, if not better than, David.
  A as well B as well as C so well D so well as
  解析:该题意为:John踢足球如果不比David好的话,那也踢得和David一样好。 和…一样好为as well as. 故该题正确答案为B。
  例2 She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.
  A when B where C which D while
  解析:该处意为"然而",只有while有此意思,故选D。
  例3 Would you like a cup of coffee ____ shall we get down to business right away?
  A. and B. then C. or D. otherwise
  解析:该处意为"或者",正确答案为C。
中考英语语法难点大全之四:动词时态和语态

(四)动词时态、语态
  I. 要点
  1、 一般现在时
  (1) 表示经常发生的动作或现在存在的状态,常与sometimes, always, often, every day等时间状语连用。如:Sometimes, we go swimming after school. 
  (2) 表示客观真理、科学事实等。如:The earth goes round the sun. 
  2、 现在进行时
  (1) 表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作,常与now, at present等时间状语连用。如:
  What are you doing now? 
  (2) 和always, continually等连用,表一种经常反复的动作,常含有某种情感。如:
  He is always doing good deeds.
  3、 现在完成时
  主要表示动作发生在过去,对现在仍有影响,或动作一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去,常与just, already, so far, once, never 等词连用。如:Have you ever been to Beijing?
  4、一般将来时
  表示将来某一时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与tomorrow, next year等连用。如:
  I’ll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning.
  We’re going to see a film next Monday.
  5、一般过去时
  表示在过去某一时间或某一阶段内发生的动作或存在的状态,常与yesterday, last year, in 1998, a moment ago等词连用。如:It happened many years ago. 
  6、过去进行时
  表示过去某一时刻或某一时期正在发生的动作。如:
  What were you doing this time yesterday?
  7、 过去完成时
  表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。如:
  The train had already left before we arrived. 
  8、一般过去将来时
  表示说话人从过去的角度来看将来发生的动作。如:
  He said he would come, but he didn’t.
  9、被动语态 被动语态的时态,以give为例。 
  时/式      一般       进行       完成 
  现在 am is  given are am is  being are has    been given have 
  过去 was    given were was   being given were had been given 
  将来 shall    be given will shall    have been given will 
  过去将来 should    be given would should    have been given would 
  II.例题
  例1 I learned that her father ____ in 1950.
  A had died B died C dead D is dead
  解析:该题正确答案为B。从句中的谓语动词动作虽然发生在主句谓语动词的动作之前,但因从句中有明确的过去时间状语in 1950, 所以不用过去完成时态,而用一般过去时态。
  例2 The five-year-old girl ____ by her parents.
  A is looked B has looked for
  C is being looked for D has been looked
  解析:该题正确答案为C。在带有介词的动词短语用于被动语态句中,介词不能省,否则就变成了不及物动词短语,而不能用于被动语态的句子中。
中考英语语法难点大全之五:动词虚拟语气

(五)动词虚拟语气
  I. 要点
  表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设等。一般常用于正式的书面语中。
  1、 虚拟语气的构成 

  注:如果条件从句谓语动词包含有were或had, should, could有时可将if省去, 但要倒装。如:
  Had you (If you had) invited us, we would have come to your party.
  2、 虚拟语气在各种从句的应用
  (1) 在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、惋惜、理应如此等,其谓语形式是"should(可省) +动词原形",常用于以下三种句型中。
  句型一:It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc) that…
  句型二:It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc) that…
  句型三:It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc) that…
  如: It is strange that he (should) have done that.
  It is a pity that he (should) be so careless.
  It is requested that we (should) be so careless.
  (2) 在宾语从句中用于suggest, propose, move, insist, desire, demand, request, order, command等动词后的宾语从句中,表间接的命令和建议。其谓语形式是"(should)+动词原形"。如:
  I suggest that we (should) go swimming.
  (3) 在表语从句中,表示间接的命令,要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句中的主语通常是suggestion, proposal, request, orders, idea等。从句谓语形式是"(should)+动词原形"。如:
  His suggestion is that we (should) leave at once. 
  (4) 在同位语从句中,谓语形式是"(should)+动词原形"。如:
  We received order that the work be done at once.
  (5) 在It is time that…句型中,其谓语动词形式是"动词的过去式"或 
  "should +动词原形",should不可省。如:It’s time (that) we went ( should go) to school.
  II. 例题
  例1 We had hoped that he ____ longer.
  A stays B have stayed C stayed D would stay
  解析:该题正确答案为D。had hoped表示"本希望",同样用法的动词还有think, expect等,后面的句子需用虚拟语气
  例2 "Mary wants to see you today".
  "I would rather she ____ tomorrow than today."
  A comes B came C should come D will come
  解析:该题正确答案为B。would rather后面的从句需用虚拟语气,用动词过去时表示。
  例3 Had she been older, she ____ it better.
  A had done B might have done C might do D would do
  解析:Had she been older = If she had been old. 故该题正确答案为B。
(六)短语动词
  I. 要点
  英语中有许多短语动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有的相当于不及物动词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。英语短语动词的构成主要有以下六种:
  (1) 动词+介词
  常见的有look for, look after, send for, care about, ask for, laugh at, hear of (from), add to, lead to等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后。如:
  Don’t laugh at others.
  I didn’t care about it.
  (2) 动词+副词
  常见的有give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in, point out等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如:You’ll hand in your homework tomorrow.
  Please don’t forget to hand it in.
  (3) 动词+副词+介词
  常见的有look down upon, go on with, break away from, add up to, catch up with等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:
  All his money added up to no more than $100.
  After a short rest, he went on with his research work.
  (4) 动词+名词+介词
  常见的有take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:You should pay attention to your handwriting.
  We should make full use of our time.
  (5) 动词+形容词
  常见的有leave open, set free, cut open等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如: 
  The prisoners were set free.
  He cut it open.
  (6) 动词+名词
  常见的有take place, make friends等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。如:
  This story took place three years ago.
  I make friends with a lot of people.
  (7)辨析
  give away(让给,暴露) 和 give up(放弃,停止)
  put away(放起,收起) 和 put out (扑灭)
  turn up(出席,放大) 和 turn on (打开)
  keep out(阻止) 和 keep off (不让靠近)
  make up(编造,补上) 和 make out(辨认)
  take off(脱,起飞) 和 take out(拿出)
  II. 例题
  例1 It is wise to have some money ____ for old age.
  A put away B kept up C given away D laid up
  解析:该题正确答案为A。意为"存";keep up意为"继续";give away意为"分发";lay up"贮藏"。例2 Here’s my card. Let’s keep in ____.
  A touch B relation C connection D friendship
  解析:该题正确答案为A. keep in touch为短语动词,意为"保持联系"。
  例3 ____! There’s a train coming.
  A Look out B Look around C Look forward D Look on
  解析:该题选A. look out 意为"小心"。

中考英语语法难点大全之七:动词不定式

(七)动词不定式
  I. 要点
  1、 不定式的形式。以动词write为例。 
  式|语态 主动语态 被动语态 
  一般式 to write to be written 
  完成式 to have written to have been written 
  进行式 to be writing 
  完成进行式 to have been writing 
  2、 不定式的句法功能
  (1) 作主语
  To hear from you is nice.
  To be a good teacher is not easy.
  不定式作主语时,为了保持句子的平衡,往往以it作形式主语,而不定式置于谓语动词后。如:It’s nice to hear from you.
  It’s not easy to be a good teacher.
  (2) 作宾语
  通常用于want, hope, wish, like, need, hate, begin, start, remember, agree, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help等词后。如:I forgot to lock the door.
  Please remember to write to me.
  (3) 作表语
  My job is to pick up letters.
  He seemed to have heard nothing.
  (4) 作定语
  不定式作定语时,须放在它所修饰的名词或代词后。如:
  I have two letters to write.
  I have a lot of work to do.
  (5) 作宾补
  通常用于want, wish, ask, order, tell, know, help, advise, allow, cause, force等词后。如:
  He ordered her to leave at once.
  He was forced to obey his order.
  (6) 作状语
  He got up early to catch the first bus.
  He worked hard to catch up with the other students.
  (7) 作独立成分
  To tell you the truth, I told a lie.
  (8) "疑问词+不定式"结构。 如:
  I don’t know how to choose them.
  I cannot decide where to go.
  (9)不定式的否定式。如:
  I decided not to go.
  (10)不定式的完成式。如:
  He seemed to have cleaned the room before I came in.
  The boy is said to have been sent to the hospital last week.
  (11)too…to 结构。如:
  He was too excited to go to sleep.
  He was only too glad to go. (他太高兴了,乐意去)
  (12)主动表被动。如:
  The book is easy to read.
  I have a book to read.
  II.例题
  例1 I haven’t got a chair ____.
  A to sit B for to sit on C to sit on D for sitting
  解析:该题选C。不定式to sit on在句中作定语,修饰名词chair. 因为不定式和它所修饰的名词间是"动宾关系",所以不定式必须是及物动词,故此处on不能省略。
  例2 He was made ____. A go B gone C going D to go
  解析:该题选D。make sb. do sth. 如果是被动形式,不定式do前的to不能省略。
  例3 A new factory is ____ very soon.
  A to be built B built
  C to build D to building 
  解析:该题选A。is to be built意为"将要被建"。

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